2015-2016 – A Celebration of the Montgomery Philharmonic’s 10th Anniversary Season

Concert 5– May 15 2016

A Second Concert with the Central Maryland Chorale

About Franz Schubert –
Franz Schubert lived a rather obscure life and died at the young age of 31. What was unrecognized while he was alive, and for another generation as well, was that he was a true genius. Schubert was the fourth son of Franz Theodor Schubert, a schoolmaster, and Elisabeth Vietz Schubert, a domestic servant in Vienna. His father and his older brother, Ignaz, gave Schubert his first music lessons on the violin. His father also sent him to the Liechtenthal parish church for organ lessons with Michael Holzer.
At the age of 11, Schubert was sent to sing in the choir of the Imperial Court Chapel and also the choir of the Royal Seminary. He was late asked to play violin in the orchestra. Playing in the orchestra helped him become familiar with the music of Haydn, Mozart, and Beethoven. Because he was extremely shy, Schubert spent all of his spare time practicing.
When he was 17, Schubert’s father chose him to become his assistant teacher. It was at that time that he began to compose in earnest. The first piece to be performed in public was his
Mass in F major. It was performed in Vienna, and Schubert fell in love with the soprano soloist, Therese Grob.
Vienna was a center for poets, lawyers, singers, actors, and others who greatly influenced Schubert, so his first songs were inspired by having read Goethe’s
Faust. These friends would become his singers, actors, patrons, and audiences for the many private concerts that he gave. In the next few years, he composed over 140 songs, a symphony, two masses, and several other chamber music works.
Schubert also loved teaching, so applied for a better teaching position in 1816. His application was rejected, however, and he immediately gave up his teaching career.



Born: January 31, 1797, Alsergrund, Vienna, Austria
Died: November 19, 1828, Vienna, Austria
Nationality: Austrian
Siblings: Ignaz Schubert, Ferdinand Schubert, Maria Theresia Schubert, Karl Schubert
Father: Franz Theodor Schubert
Mother: Elisabeth Vietz Schubert

Compositions: 8 symphonies; 12 overtures; 3 concertante works; 6 chamber works of various instrumentation; 30 works for string quartet; 14 works for instruments with piano; 37 piano duets; 34 piano sonatas or sonata movements; 11 sacred masses, requiems, and Stabat Mater; 28 short religious works; 22 staged works; over 600 of songs, song cycles, and part songs
Mass in A-flat (1819–1822) – Franz Schubert
Franz Schubert lived such a short life that we have often wondered what would have happened to the musical world had he lived to old age. His music matured very quickly. This piece, the Mass in A-flat Major, shows unprecedented maturity rarely seen up until this point by a 19–21-year-old composer. He was a thoughtful composer and continued to revise the mass, rewriting entire sections until 1826. There is no direct evidence that the mass was performed during his lifetime, but because there were so many revisions, it is thought that it might have been performed but not well received. It was not published until several years after his death. The fifth of his six masses, it is the most profound of all the masses, showing Schubert’s great genius for melody.
In a letter to his parents, Schubert mentioned that he never “forced himself to pray.” Still, he wrote close to 40 sacred works, among them the
Mass in A-flat Major, which is certainly one of the most brilliant of religious works of the time—just as impressive and engaging as any of the Haydn or Mozart masses. It is in this mass that Schubert is most interpretive of the text, using both melody and harmony to deepen the expression and enhance the meaning. The simplified fugue portion in the “Cum sancto spiritu” section of the Credo is one of the major revisions of the mass. Interestingly, Schubert used this revision as an audition piece for the Kapellmeister position in the court of the Imperial Court Chapel, but the audition was unsuccessful because the head Kapellmeister didn’t like Schubert’s style of composition.
Schubert scholar Brian Newbould considered the late masses to be the composer’s “two finest and most substantial settings,” and thought that Schubert himself must have regarded the Mass in A-flat Major very highly, judging by his “extended labors” and numerous returns to the setting. In a December 1822 letter to his friend Joseph von Spaun, Schubert contemplated dedicating the mass to the Emperor or Empress, “for it has turned out well.” The mass had a large influence on the composition of Anton Bruckner’s Mass in F Minor.
Soon after finishing the
Mass in A-Flat, Schubert began working on one of his most famous creations, the Unfinished Symphony. He died in 1828 at the age of 31.

Schubert said, “In order for harmony to deepen the expression and enhance the meaning of the text”, he often omitted sections of the traditional mass text in some of his compositions. Below are the six complete mass text sections. We have crossed out and put in parenthesis, the parts that Schubert omitted so you can see Schubert’s conscious choices.

Kyrie
Kyrie eleison.
Christe eleison.
Kyrie eleison.

Gloria
Gloria in excelsis Deo,
Et in terra pax hominibus bonae voluntatis.
Laudamus te, benedicimus te,
Adoramus te, glorificamus te.
Gratias agimus tibi propter magnam gloriam tuam.
Domine Deus, Rex coelestis,
Deus Pater omnipotens.
Domine Fili unigenite, Jesu Christe.
Domine Deus, Agnus Dei, Filius Patris.
Qui tollis peccata mundi,
Miserere nobis.
Qui tollis peccata mundi,
[Suscipe deprecationem nostram.
Qui sedes ad dexteram Patris,
miserere nobis.]

Quoniam tu solus sanctus, tu solus Dominus,
Tu solus altissimus,
[Jesu Christe.]
Cum Sancto Spiritu in gloria Dei Patris,
Amen.

Credo
Credo in unum Deum, Patrem omnipotentem,
factorem coeli et terrae,
visibilium omnium et invisibilium.
[
Et in unum Dominum Jesum Christum],
Filium Dei unigenitum, et ex patre natum ante omnia saecula, Deum de Deo, lumen de lumine,
Deum verum de Deo vero. [
Genitum non factum, consubstantialem Patri;] per quem omnia facta sunt. Qui propter nos homines et propter nostram salutem descendit de coelis.
Et incarnatus est de Spiritu Sancto,
ex Maria virgine; et homo factus est.
Crucifixus etiam pro nobis sub Pontio Pilato,
[passus et sepultus est]. Et resurrexit tertia die secundum Scripturas, et ascendit in coelum, sedet ad dexteram Patris, et iterum venturus est cum gloria, judicare vivos et mortuos, cujus regni non erit finis.
Et in Spiritum Sanctum Dominum,
et vivificantem, qui ex Patre Filioque procedit,
qui cum Patre et Filio simul adoratur,
et conglorificatur, qui locutus est per Prophetas.
[Et unam sanctam catholicam et apolstolicam Eccelsiam.] Confiteor unum baptisma in remissionem peccatorum, [et expecto resurectionem] mortuorum,
et vitam venturi saeculi. Amen.

Sanctus
Sanctus, Sanctus, Sanctus, Dominus Deus Sabaoth.
Pleni sunt coeli et terra gloria tua.
Osanna in excelsis.

Benedictus
Benedictus qui venit in nomine Domini.
Osanna in excelsis.

Agnus Dei
Agnus Dei qui tollis peccata mundi,
miserere nobis.
Agnus Dei qui tollis peccata mundi,
miserere nobis.
Agnus Dei qui tollis peccata mundi,
dona nobis pacem.

Kyrie
Lord, have mercy.
Christ, have mercy.
Lord, have mercy.

Gloria
Glory to God in the highest,
And peace on earth to men of good will.
We praise You, we bless You,
We worship You, we glorify You.
We give You thanks for Your great glory.
Lord God, King of Heaven,
God the Father Almighty.
Lord only-begotten Son, Jesus Christ.
Lord God, Lamb of God, Son of the Father.
You who take away the sin of the world,
Have mercy on us.
You who take away the sin of the world,
[
Hear our prayer.
You who sit at the right hand of the Father,
have mercy on us
.]

For You alone are holy, You alone are Lord,
You alone are the Most High, [Jesus Christ.]
With the Holy Spirit in the glory of God the Father, Amen.


Credo
I believe in one God, the Father, the Almighty,
maker of heaven and earth,
of all that is, seen and unseen.
[
And in one Lord Jesus Christ], the only Son of God, eternally begotten of the Father,
God from God, light from light,
true God from true God, [begotten, not made,
of one being with the Father
]
; through Him all things were made. For us and [for] our salvation He came down from heaven: by the power of the Holy Spirit He became incarnate from the Virgin Mary, and was made man.
For our sake He was crucified under Pontius Pilate; [He suffered death and was buried]. On the third day He rose again in accordance with the Scriptures; He ascended into heaven, and is seated at the right hand of the Father; He will come again in glory to judge the living and the dead, and His kingdom will have no end.
And I believe in the Holy Spirit, the Lord, the giver of Life, who proceeds from the Father and the Son; with the Father and the Son He is worshipped and glorified. He has spoken through the prophets. [I believe in one holy catholic and apostolic Church;] I acknowledge one baptism for the forgiveness of sins; [I look for the resurrection] of the dead, and the life of the world to come.
Amen.

Sanctus
Holy, holy, holy, Lord God of Hosts.
Heaven and earth are full of your glory,
Hosanna in the highest.

Benedictus
Blessed is He who comes in the name of the Lord,
Hosanna in the highest.

Agnus Dei
Lamb of God, who takes away the sin of the world,
have mercy on us.
Lamb of God, who takes away the sin of the world,
have mercy on us.
Lamb of God, who takes away the sin of the world,
grant us peace.
Instrumentation Flute, 2 oboes, clarinet in B-flat and A, 2 bassoons, 2 horns, 2 trumpets, 3 trombones, timpani, strings